In summary, ethics is how we look at and understand life, while moral theories are frameworks we use to decide how to act. Consequentialism is a theory that emphasises the results of actions, while Deontology stresses the requirement to act morally, irrespective of the outcome. Bioethics is a principle-based theory that brings together the ethics of biology, biological research and their applications. The four principles of Bioethics are autonomy, the right of individuals to make their own decisions; nonmaleficence, one should avoid causing harm; beneficence, positive steps should taken to help others; and justice, the benefits and risks should be fairly distributed. While no one moral theory is correct, and there are many more to be considered, they provide a useful tool to guide ethical decision making.

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